How to Extract Frames from Video in Python

Making two different methods to extract frames from videos with the timestamp with OpenCV or MoviePy libraries in Python.
  · 7 min read · Updated may 2024 · Python for Multimedia

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As you may already know, a video is made up of a series of images. These images are called frames and are played continuously one by one at a certain rate, which will be recognized as motion by the human eye.

In this tutorial, you will learn two methods of extracting frames from video files in Python. First, we'll explore how we can do that with the well-known OpenCV library. After that, we'll explore the other method of extracting frames using the MoviePy library.

To get started, let's install the libraries:

$ pip install python-opencv moviepy

Method 1: Extracting Frames using OpenCV

I'll create extract_frames_opencv.py file and import the necessary modules:

from datetime import timedelta
import cv2
import numpy as np
import os

Since not all videos have the same length and FPS, we will define a parameter to adjust how many frames we want to extract and save per second:

# i.e if video of duration 30 seconds, saves 10 frame per second = 300 frames saved in total
SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND = 10

We will use this parameter in both methods. For instance, if it's set to 10 for now, it will save only 10 frames per second of the video, even though the video FPS is, say, 24. If the video is 30 seconds long, then 300 frames will be saved in total. You can also set this parameter to, say, 0.5, which will save one frame per 2 seconds, and so on.

Next, let's define two helper functions:

def format_timedelta(td):
    """Utility function to format timedelta objects in a cool way (e.g 00:00:20.05) 
    omitting microseconds and retaining milliseconds"""
    result = str(td)
    try:
        result, ms = result.split(".")
    except ValueError:
        return (result + ".00").replace(":", "-")
    ms = int(ms)
    ms = round(ms / 1e4)
    return f"{result}.{ms:02}".replace(":", "-")


def get_saving_frames_durations(cap, saving_fps):
    """A function that returns the list of durations where to save the frames"""
    s = []
    # get the clip duration by dividing number of frames by the number of frames per second
    clip_duration = cap.get(cv2.CAP_PROP_FRAME_COUNT) / cap.get(cv2.CAP_PROP_FPS)
    # use np.arange() to make floating-point steps
    for i in np.arange(0, clip_duration, 1 / saving_fps):
        s.append(i)
    return s

The format_timedelta() function accepts a timedelta object, returns a nice string representation with milliseconds, and omits the microseconds.

The get_saving_frames_durations() function accepts the VideoCapture object from OpenCV, and the saving parameter we discussed earlier and returns a list of duration spots on where we should save the frames.

Now that we have these helper functions, let's define the main function and explain it:

def main(video_file):
    filename, _ = os.path.splitext(video_file)
    filename += "-opencv"
    # make a folder by the name of the video file
    if not os.path.isdir(filename):
        os.mkdir(filename)
    # read the video file    
    cap = cv2.VideoCapture(video_file)
    # get the FPS of the video
    fps = cap.get(cv2.CAP_PROP_FPS)
    # if the SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND is above video FPS, then set it to FPS (as maximum)
    saving_frames_per_second = min(fps, SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND)
    # get the list of duration spots to save
    saving_frames_durations = get_saving_frames_durations(cap, saving_frames_per_second)
    # start the loop
    count = 0
    while True:
        is_read, frame = cap.read()
        if not is_read:
            # break out of the loop if there are no frames to read
            break
        # get the duration by dividing the frame count by the FPS
        frame_duration = count / fps
        try:
            # get the earliest duration to save
            closest_duration = saving_frames_durations[0]
        except IndexError:
            # the list is empty, all duration frames were saved
            break
        if frame_duration >= closest_duration:
            # if closest duration is less than or equals the frame duration, 
            # then save the frame
            frame_duration_formatted = format_timedelta(timedelta(seconds=frame_duration))
            cv2.imwrite(os.path.join(filename, f"frame{frame_duration_formatted}.jpg"), frame) 
            # drop the duration spot from the list, since this duration spot is already saved
            try:
                saving_frames_durations.pop(0)
            except IndexError:
                pass
        # increment the frame count
        count += 1

The above function looks complicated, but it's not; here's what we're doing:

  • First, we make the filename variable, which is the folder name we're going to create and save our frames in; we append "-opencv" just to distinguish the methods, but you can delete them.
  • Then, we create the folder using the os.mkdir() function if not already created.
  • After that, we read the video file using cv2.VideoCapture, and retrieves the FPS using the cap.get() method and pass the code for FPS, which is cv2.CAP_PROP_FPS.
  • We set the saving frames per second to the minimum of the actual video FPS and our parameter. So, we ensure we cannot bypass a higher saving fps than the actual video fps.
  • After we get the saving durations, we enter the loop of reading the frames, and we only save when we're sure that the duration is in our saving_frames_durations list. We save the frame using cv2.imwrite(), and set the frame name to the actual duration.

Defining the main code:

if __name__ == "__main__":
    import sys
    video_file = sys.argv[1]
    main(video_file)

Since we're passing the video file using command-line arguments, let's run it:

$ python extract_frames_opencv.py zoo.mp4

After the execution of the above command, a new folder "zoo-opencv" is created, and that's what is included in it:

Extracted Frames using OpenCV in PythonAs you can see, the frames are saved along with the timestamp in the file name.

Related: How to Extract Audio from Video in Python

Method 2: Extracting Frames using MoviePy

In this method, we're not going to use OpenCV, but with another library called MoviePy, I'm going to create a file called extract_frames_moviepy.py and import the necessary modules:

from moviepy.editor import VideoFileClip
import numpy as np
import os
from datetime import timedelta

As in the first method, we'll be using the SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND parameter here too:

# i.e if video of duration 30 seconds, saves 10 frame per second = 300 frames saved in total
SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND = 10

Refer to the first section of this tutorial to learn what it exactly means. As previously, we need the format_timedelta() function too:

def format_timedelta(td):
    """Utility function to format timedelta objects in a cool way (e.g 00:00:20.05) 
    omitting microseconds and retaining milliseconds"""
    result = str(td)
    try:
        result, ms = result.split(".")
    except ValueError:
        return (result + ".00").replace(":", "-")
    ms = int(ms)
    ms = round(ms / 1e4)
    return f"{result}.{ms:02}".replace(":", "-")

Going to the main function now:

def main(video_file):
    # load the video clip
    video_clip = VideoFileClip(video_file)
    # make a folder by the name of the video file
    filename, _ = os.path.splitext(video_file)
    filename += "-moviepy"
    if not os.path.isdir(filename):
        os.mkdir(filename)

    # if the SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND is above video FPS, then set it to FPS (as maximum)
    saving_frames_per_second = min(video_clip.fps, SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND)
    # if SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND is set to 0, step is 1/fps, else 1/SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND
    step = 1 / video_clip.fps if saving_frames_per_second == 0 else 1 / saving_frames_per_second
    # iterate over each possible frame
    for current_duration in np.arange(0, video_clip.duration, step):
        # format the file name and save it
        frame_duration_formatted = format_timedelta(timedelta(seconds=current_duration))
        frame_filename = os.path.join(filename, f"frame{frame_duration_formatted}.jpg")
        # save the frame with the current duration
        video_clip.save_frame(frame_filename, current_duration)

As you may have already noticed, this method requires less code. First, we load our video clip using VideoFileClip() class, create our folder and ensure that the saving fps is less than or equal to the video fps.

We then define our looping step, which is 1 divided by the saving fps. If we set the SAVING_FRAMES_PER_SECOND to 10, then the step would be 0.1 (i.e., saving frame every 0.1 seconds).

The difference here is that the VideoFileClip object has the save_frame() method, which accepts two arguments: the frame filename and the duration of the frame you want to save. So what we did is that we loop using np.arange() (floating-point version of the regular range() function) to take steps on each frame that we want and call the save_frame() method accordingly.

Here is the main code:

if __name__ == "__main__":
    import sys
    video_file = sys.argv[1]
    main(video_file)

Let's test it out: 

$ python extract_frames_moviepy.py zoo.mp4

After a few seconds, the zoo-moviepy folder is created, and the frames are saved inside that folder.

Conclusion

After using both methods in my case, I noticed that method one (using OpenCV) is faster in terms of time execution but saves larger images than MoviePy.

In the case of that demo video, the size of 190 frames was 2.8MB using the second method (using MoviePy) and 5.46MB using OpenCV. However, the duration of the MoviePy method was 2.3 seconds, whereas the OpenCV took about 0.6 seconds.

That being said, I have put two methods of extracting frames from videos in your hands in Python; it is up to you to choose which method suits you best.

Check the full code of both methods here.

Learn also: How to Concatenate Video Files in Python

Happy coding ♥

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